Optic Nerve Disorders

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Optic Nerve Disorders

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen ANATOMY OF THE OPTIC NERVE Intraocular course Intraorbital course Intracanalicular course Intracranial course CLINICAL EXPRESSION OF DISEASE Pallor and cupping Optic disc swelling (edema) Accompanying…

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Understanding Visual Field Defects

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Understanding Visual Field Defects

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen OPTICS AND MEDIA RETINA Organization Visual field defects NERVE FIBER LAYER/OPTIC DISC Organization Visual field defects THE CHIASM Organization Visual field defects OVERVIEW OF RETROCHIASMAL…

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Testing Sensory Visual Function

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Testing Sensory Visual Function

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen CLINICAL TESTS OF CENTRAL VISUAL FUNCTION Visual acuity testing Contrast sensitivity testing Brightness sense testing Photo-stress testing Amsler grid testing Color vision testing Stereopsis testing…

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Supranuclear Visual Motor System and Nystagmus

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Supranuclear Visual Motor System and Nystagmus

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen INTERNUCLEAR ORGANIZATION: GAZE CENTERS Horizontal gaze Vertical gaze SUPRANUCLEAR PATHWAYS AND DISORDERS Saccades Pursuit Vestibulo-ocular reflex Optokinetic reflex Vergence Fixation reflex NYSTAGMUS Classification and terminology…

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The Pupil

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on The Pupil

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen ANATOMY AND OVERVIEW OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The iris Sympathetic innervation of the pupil Parasympathetic innervation of the Pupil The afferent pupillary pathway and midbrain connections AFFERENT…

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Neurovascular and Neurocutaneous Diseases

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Neurovascular and Neurocutaneous Diseases

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE Carotid disease Vertebrobasilar disease Arteriovenous malformation Arterial-cavernous sinus fistula Aneurysms Dolichoectatic arteries NEUROCUTANEOUS SYNDROMES Neurofibromatosis Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis (Sturge-Weber syndrome) Retinal angiomatosis (von Hippel…

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Ocular Motility Disorders: Cranial Nerve Palsies

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Ocular Motility Disorders: Cranial Nerve Palsies

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen ABDUCENS NERVE:CRANIAL NERVE VI Signs and symptoms Anatomy: clinical implications Differential diagnosis and evaluation Management TROCHLEAR NERVE: CRANIAL NERVE IV Signs and symptoms Anatomy: clinical…

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The Facial Nerve

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on The Facial Nerve

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen NEUROANATOMY Supranuclear (upper motor neuron) pathways Facial nucleus and fascicles (lower motor neuron) Subarachnoid space Temporal bone and peripheral course ASSESSMENT OF FACIAL NERVE FUNCTION…

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Ocular Motility Disorders: Extraocular Muscles and the Neuromuscular Junction

Jan 2, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Ocular Motility Disorders: Extraocular Muscles and the Neuromuscular Junction

CHAPTER OUTLINE Print Section Listen EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES Anatomy and function MYOPATHIES Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia Muscular dystrophies Orbital inflammatory disorders RESTRICTIVE ORBITOPATHIES Orbital Graves disease Other restrictive syndromes DISORDERS OF…

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