OPHTHALMOLOGY

Hyperphoria and Cyclophoria

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Hyperphoria and Cyclophoria

Hyperphoria is a potential deviation of one eye upwards which becomes an actual deviation when the two eyes are dissociated, and which recovers when the dissociating factors are removed. In…

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Exophoric Conditions

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Exophoric Conditions

Although it has been shown that divergence is actively stimulated ( Breinin, 1957 ), exophoria appears to be a much more passive condition than esophoria. There are several potential explanations…

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Esophoric Conditions

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Esophoric Conditions

Most esophoria is ‘accommodative’, in that it largely results from excessive accommodation due to uncorrected hypermetropia or prolonged close work. As a result of the accommodation/convergence linkage, the overactive accommodation…

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Management of Heterophoria: Basic Principles

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Management of Heterophoria: Basic Principles

Before dealing with the individual heterophoric conditions in the next three chapters, this chapter outlines the basic principles of management. There are two reasons to treat a heterophoria: to alleviate…

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Binocular Instability

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Binocular Instability

A heterophoria is compensated when the vergence system can adequately overcome the heterophoria. Yet there are subjects with a negligible heterophoria and whose opposing fusional reserves meet the conventional criteria…

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Examination of Young Children

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Examination of Young Children

Objectives In examining the eyes and vision of preschool children, under the age of 4–5 years, the approach and method should be modified from the routine appropriate to older children…

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Nature of Binocular Vision Anomalies

Apr 11, 2021 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Nature of Binocular Vision Anomalies

Introduction Binocular vision is the coordination and integration of what is received from the two eyes separately into a single binocular percept. Proper functioning of binocular vision without symptoms depends…

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