OPHTHALMOLOGY

Pediatrics

Jul 30, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Pediatrics

A number of retinal abnormalities are limited to the pediatric setting. These include congenital and hereditary abnormalities. While many of these disorders are reviewed in Chapter 2 , this pediatric…

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Normal

Jul 30, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Normal

Retinal Histology The sensory retina extends to the ora serrata, where it is continuous with the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium of the pars plana. The ora serrata is 2.1 mm wide temporally…

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Neuro-ophthalmology

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Neuro-ophthalmology

Optic nerve Table 19.1 Signs of optic nerve dysfunction • Reduced VA • Relative afferent pupillary defect • Dyschromatopsia: impairment of colour vision, mainly red and green • Diminished light…

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Uveitis

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Uveitis

Terminology • Uveitis: inflammation of the uveal tract. • Anterior uveitis: iritis and iridocyclitis (iris and ciliary body). • Intermediate uveitis: inflammation of the pars plana, the peripheral retina, and…

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Eyelids

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Eyelids

Benign nodules and cysts Chalazion (meibomian cyst) Definition: very common chronic sterile inflammation of a meibomian gland that may resolve spontaneously. Diagnosis • Signs: (a) gradually enlarging tarsal nodule (…

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Ocular tumours

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Ocular tumours

Benign epibulbar tumours Conjunctival naevus Diagnosis • Presentation: in 1st and 2nd decades. • Signs: (a) slightly elevated pigmented bulbar lesion of variable size and pigmentation, (b) often juxtalimbal (…

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Cornea

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Cornea

Bacterial keratitis Pathogenesis • Pathogens: most common are (a) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , (b) S. aureus , and (c) streptococci. • Risk factors: (a) contact lens wear, (b) trauma, and (c)…

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Acquired macular disorders

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Acquired macular disorders

Age-related macular degeneration Introduction • Definition: degeneration affecting the macula; characterized by drusen and RPE changes, and sometimes CNV. • Classification: non-exudative (‘dry’)—most common, and exudative (‘wet’); the latter is…

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Trauma

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Trauma

Eyelid trauma Periocular haematoma • A ‘black eye,’ consisting of a haematoma (focal collection of blood) and/or periocular ecchymosis (diffuse bruising) and oedema, is a very common result of blunt…

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