Intraocular Foreign Body

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Intraocular Foreign Body

Common Symptoms Presentation is highly variable and depends on the nature, size, and location of the intraocular foreign body (IOFB). Patients might be asymptomatic or complain of decreased vision, pain,…

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Choroidal and Retinal Metastasis

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Choroidal and Retinal Metastasis

Features In a recent report to the nation on the status of cancer in America, it was documented that the incidence and death rates from all cancers combined have decreased…

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Choroidal Nevus

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Choroidal Nevus

Features Choroidal nevus is the most common benign intraocular tumor, found predominantly in Caucasian patients. The estimated prevalence is approximately 5% in U.S. adults. Several clinical features allow identification of…

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Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

27.1 Features Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in older individuals in the United States. In NVAMD, there is choroidal neovascularization (CNV) which can…

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Retinal Vascular Tumors

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Retinal Vascular Tumors

Features There are several vascular tumors (hemangiomas) that can occur in the retina including retinal hemangioblastoma, cavernous hemangioma, racemose hemangioma, and vasoproliferative tumor (VPT). Each has distinct funduscopic and imaging…

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Retinoblastoma

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Retinoblastoma

Features Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy with an incidence of approximately 1:15,000 births. The tumor suppressor RB1 gene is known to be key in the development…

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Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome

Features Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is a multisystem inflammatory condition affecting the eye, skin, inner ear, and meninges. The condition is characterized by ocular inflammation in association with patchy depigmentation of…

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Syphilitic Uveitis

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Syphilitic Uveitis

55.1 Features Syphilitic uveitis is frequently the presenting manifestation of systemic syphilis caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. Primary syphilis is the first stage where patients develop a painless chancre,…

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Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

Mar 24, 2020 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

18.1 Features Diabetic retinopathy (DR) represents a retinal microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is the foremost cause of preventable vision loss in working age adults; its prevalence has been…

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