Neuro-ophthalmology

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Neuro-ophthalmology

Optic nerve Table 19.1 Signs of optic nerve dysfunction • Reduced VA • Relative afferent pupillary defect • Dyschromatopsia: impairment of colour vision, mainly red and green • Diminished light…

read more

Uveitis

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Uveitis

Terminology • Uveitis: inflammation of the uveal tract. • Anterior uveitis: iritis and iridocyclitis (iris and ciliary body). • Intermediate uveitis: inflammation of the pars plana, the peripheral retina, and…

read more

Eyelids

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Eyelids

Benign nodules and cysts Chalazion (meibomian cyst) Definition: very common chronic sterile inflammation of a meibomian gland that may resolve spontaneously. Diagnosis • Signs: (a) gradually enlarging tarsal nodule (…

read more

Ocular tumours

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Ocular tumours

Benign epibulbar tumours Conjunctival naevus Diagnosis • Presentation: in 1st and 2nd decades. • Signs: (a) slightly elevated pigmented bulbar lesion of variable size and pigmentation, (b) often juxtalimbal (…

read more

Cornea

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Cornea

Bacterial keratitis Pathogenesis • Pathogens: most common are (a) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , (b) S. aureus , and (c) streptococci. • Risk factors: (a) contact lens wear, (b) trauma, and (c)…

read more

Acquired macular disorders

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Acquired macular disorders

Age-related macular degeneration Introduction • Definition: degeneration affecting the macula; characterized by drusen and RPE changes, and sometimes CNV. • Classification: non-exudative (‘dry’)—most common, and exudative (‘wet’); the latter is…

read more

Trauma

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Trauma

Eyelid trauma Periocular haematoma • A ‘black eye,’ consisting of a haematoma (focal collection of blood) and/or periocular ecchymosis (diffuse bruising) and oedema, is a very common result of blunt…

read more

Glaucoma

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Glaucoma

Ocular hypertension Diagnosis • Normal IOP: mean IOP in the general population is 16 mm Hg; two standard deviations to either side of this gives a ‘normal’ IOP range of 11–21 mm…

read more

Hereditary fundus dystrophies

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Hereditary fundus dystrophies

Generalized photoreceptor dystrophies Retinitis pigmentosa Genetics: Typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of retinal dystrophies initially mainly affecting the rod photoreceptor cells and subsequently cones (rod–cone dystrophy). It can…

read more

Retinal detachment

Jul 11, 2019 by in OPHTHALMOLOGY Comments Off on Retinal detachment

Definitions • Retinal detachment (RD): separation of the neurosensory retina (NSR) from the RPE, with the accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF). • Rhegmatogenous RD: occurs when a full-thickness defect in…

read more
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes