Pediatrics / Strabismus

5 Pediatrics / Strabismus



Pediatrics





Orbital Disorders





Benign Lesions







Capillary Hemangioma


Most common benign tumor of the orbit in children


Often manifests in the first few weeks of life and enlarges over the first 6 to 12 months, with complete regression by age 5–8 years in 80% of cases


Spontaneous involution over the next few years


Predilection for the superior nasal quadrant of the orbit and medial upper eyelid


Female > male (3 : 2)


Diffuse irregular mass of plump endothelial cells and small vascular channels


High-flow lesion















Malignant Neoplasms



Rhabdomyosarcoma


Most common primary orbital malignancy of children


Most common soft tissue malignancy of childhood


Most common mesenchymal tumor of orbit


Malignant spindle cell tumor with loose myxomatous matrix


Average age at diagnosis is 8 years old (90% before age 16)


Cell of origin is an undifferentiated, pluripotent cell of the soft tissue; does not originate from the extraocular muscles


Unilateral; tends to involve superonasal portion of orbit


More common in males (5 : 3)


Aggressive local spread through orbital bones; hematogenous spread to lungs and cervical lymph nodes; most common location for metastasis is chest














Craniofacial Disorders


Structural development of head and face occur during 4th–8th week of gestation


Ocular motility disturbances occur in 75% of patients with craniofacial disorders




Syndromes

















Lid Disorders




















Conjunctival Disorders




Conjunctivitis



Ophthalmia Neonatorum


Conjunctivitis within first month of life


Papillary conjunctivitis (no follicular reaction in neonate due to immaturity of immune system)



Etiology












Jun 4, 2016 | Posted by in OPHTHALMOLOGY | Comments Off on Pediatrics / Strabismus
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