8 Posterior Aspect of the Neck



10.1055/b-0037-146633

8 Posterior Aspect of the Neck


Maria Peris-Celda

Fig. 8.1. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The skin and subcutaneous tissue have been removed. The sternocleidomastoid muscle has been removed on the right side.
Fig. 8.2. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The trapezius muscles have been removed to expose the splenius capitis muscles.
Fig. 8.3. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The splenius capitis has been reflected laterally on the left side to expose the semispinalis capitis muscle.
Fig. 8.4. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. Both splenius capitis muscles and the left semispinalis capitis have been reflected laterally to partially expose the deep muscular plane.
Fig. 8.5. Posterior cervical region, posterior view, deep dissection. The left semispinalis capitis has been reflected laterally to expose the suboccipital triangle bordered by the rectus capitis posterior major, the obliquus capitis superior, and the obliquus capitis inferior.
Fig. 8.6. Detailed view of the left suboccipital triangle, posterior view. The vertebral artery is exposed in the center of this triangle.
Fig. 8.7. Posterior cervical region, posterolateral view, right side. Detailed view of the occipital artery and greater occipital nerve.
Fig. 8.8. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The deep muscular plane has been exposed bilaterally.
Fig. 8.9. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The rectus capitis posterior and obliquus capitis superior muscles have been removed bilaterally. The right vertebral artery and left suboccipital venous plexus have been exposed.
Fig. 8.10. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The deep musculature has been removed bilaterally. The left suboccipital venous plexus has been preserved.
Fig. 8.11. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The musculature and the venous plexus have been removed bilaterally while leaving some of the muscular attachments to expose the cervical spine, dorsal rami of the cervical nerves, and arteries.
Fig. 8.12. Posterior cervical region, posterior view. The muscular attachments have been removed to expose the cervical nerves and cervical vertebrae.
Fig. 8.13. Posterolateral cervical region, left side. The cervical plexus and its branches have been exposed.
Fig. 8.14. Posterolateral cervical region, left side. The levator scapulae muscle has been retracted posteriorly and the internal jugular vein laterally to expose the carotid artery.
Fig. 8.15. Posterior cervical, suboccipital, and occipital regions, posterior view. The laminae of the cervical vertebrae have been removed to expose the cervical spinal dura mater. The occipital bone has been removed while leaving a rim of bone around the foramen magnum. The vertebral artery has been exposed in the foramen transversarium on the right side.
Fig. 8.16. Posterior cervical and suboccipital regions, posterior view. The dura mater and the arachnoid have been opened and reflected to the right side to expose the cerebellum and spinal cord.
Fig. 8.17. Deep dissection of the head and neck, posterolateral view, left side.
Fig. 8.18. Enlarged view of the deep dissection of head and neck, posterolateral view, left side. Note the relationships of the vertebral artery to the C1 and C2 vertebrae.
Fig. 8.19. Posterior cervical region, deep dissection, posterior view. The articular processes of the right cervical vertebrae have been removed to expose the cervical nerve roots and the vertebral artery ascending through the foramen transversarium.
Fig. 8.20. Posterior cervical region, deep dissection, posterolateral view, left side. Detailed view of the relationship of the vertebral artery to the occipital bone, C1, C2 vertebrae, and C1 and C2 nerves.

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May 23, 2020 | Posted by in OPHTHALMOLOGY | Comments Off on 8 Posterior Aspect of the Neck
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