Alex V. Levin
Thomas W. Wilson
Few pulmonary disorders have ophthalmic manifestations. In addition to sarcoidosis, the focus of this chapter, patients with asthma may have signs of atopy, including allergic or vernal conjunctivitis (Chapter 4: Conjunctiva, Figs. 4.10 and 4.11) or cataract. As the sympathetic chain travels over the apex of the lung before innervating the intraocular and periocular structures, tumors or inflammatory processes at the lung apex can result in ipsilateral Horner syndrome (Chapter 6: Iris and Pupils, Fig. 6.22). Cystic fibrosis is associated with ocular surface abnormalities and, without enzyme replacement, vitamin A deficiency (Chapter 22: Vitamins, Figs. 22.1 and 22.2). Other systemic diseases may have pulmonary and ocular manifestations (e.g., Marfan syndrome, tuberculosis).